Poling is a [metallurgical] method employed in the purification of copper which contains copper oxide as an impurity and also in the purification of tin ("Sn") which contains tin oxide (stannic oxide or "SnO 2") as an impurity.
Copper is typically extracted from oxide and sulfide ores that contain between and percent copper. The refining techniques employed by copper producers depend on the ore type, as well as other economic and environmental factors. Currently, about 80 percent of global copper production is ...
Extraction and purification of copper. Copper is less reactive than carbon, so it can be extracted from its ores by heating it with carbon. For example, copper is formed if copper oxide is heated strongly with charcoal, which is mostly carbon:
Smelting and Refining Operations. Adapted from the 3rd edition, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. In the production and refining of metals, valuable components are separated from worthless material in a series of different physical and chemical reactions.